ORGAN OF SAN JERÓNIMO TLACOCHAHUAYA Mexico
Pablo Bruna, Tiento de dos tiples, played by Mexican organist José Suárez on the historic organ of San Jerónimo Tlacochahuaya, Oaxaca, Mexico, restored by Susan Tattershall in 1991. A good example of a "medio registro" organ piece, employing a single divided keyboard with different stops drawn in bass and treble. Recorded in 1998, Quindecim QP014.
The piece you hear in the background is "Diferencia sobre la Gallarda Milanesa" from the Baroque Composer Antonio de Cabezón, and it's performed on the Organ located in the chorus of this magnificent church by the French Organist Dominique Ferran.
THE HISTORIC ORGAN OF SAN JERÓNIMO TLACOCHAHUAYA
Every inch of this beautiful Organ was painted to match the frescoes on the walls of this Church. The identity of the builder is unknown, but it was built around 1735 and had some interventions dated on 1867 and 1890.
The convent of San Jerónimo Tlacochahuaya was founded in 1558 by Fray Jordan de Santa Catalina, a Dominican ascetic, as a retreat for the Dominican priests based in the city of Oaxaca. The original church looked different than the structure we see today, since the choir loft, interior decoration, and façade were added in the early eighteenth century. However, the former convent of modest dimensions, located behind the church, is unchanged.
Even though the exact date of construction of the organ is unknown, it was most likely built around 1725-35, based on characteristics of musical design, decoration, and case construction similar to other organs of the time: San Dionisio Ocotepec (1721), San Andrés Zautla (1726), and San Pedro Quiatoni (1729). The organ was modified in 1735, a date found incised in the largest pipe of a new row of pipes (bardón) installed soon after the original construction. At that time, other modifications were made to the organ: the stop action was altered so that the registers could be controlled by pulling knobs on the front of the case rather than the slider tabs on the sides (you can still see the mortises—rectangular holes—from which the original slider tabs protruded); the case was painted with angel musicians and floral motifs to match the interior decoration of the church; a row of horizontal trumpets was installed on the façade; and the organ was moved from the church floor up into the new choir loft.
During the Revolution (1910-1919), many churches throughout Mexico, including that in Tlacochahuaya, were used as military barracks, and countless organs lost some or all of their pipes, which were melted down for bullets by the soldiers. Those organs which survived, with or without their pipes, the times of political strife were the lucky ones, since so many instruments, altarpieces and other church art, and entire archives were either burned for firewood or simply destroyed. Fortunately, the Tlacochauaya organ lost only a few of its pipes, which were replaced by organbuilder Joachim Wesslowski during the restoration.
After many years of abandonment, the Tlacochahuaya organ was finally restored in 1991 by organbuilder Susan Tattershall, thanks to the support of the Pichiquequiti Foundation. She was assisted by José Luis Falcón, and the case painting was restored by Mireya Olvera. An electric blower was installed in order to create a constant supply of wind to one of the bellows, but the two bellows may still be pumped by hand if necessary.
Since the year 2000, the Instituto de Órganos Históricos de Oaxaca A.C. has overseen the maintenance of the organ and has encouraged its more regular use. The organ in Tlacochahuaya is not a large instrument, but its robust sound is enhanced by the acoustical properties inherent in the architectural design of the church, so that this little organ is capable of filling the entire space with its music.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDDate of construction of the church: 1558, built as a retreat for Dominican friars in Oaxaca; choir loft, soto coro, and façade added around 1730
Date of construction of the organ: ca. 1725-1730
Inscriptions: the largest pipe of the bardón has a cross and the date 1735, as well as a reference to the 1867 intervention. All ranks numbered from 1 to 45.
RECENT INTERVENTIONRestoration: 1990-1991, Susan Tattershall; Mireya Olvera, restoration of the case
Funding: Fundación Pichiquequiti
The piece you hear is called Pange Lingua de 5o. tono, of Pablo Bruna, played by the French Organist Dominique Ferran on this very Organ.
DISPOSITION OF THE ORGAN
It has 12 registers or stops, 6 for each hand and one Toy stop.
On the left:
Diez y Novena,
Flautado de 6,
Leinte y Docena,
Quincena and Bardón.
On the Right:
Trompeta en Batalla,
Flautado de 6,
The Toy Stop is known as Pajaritos (Little Birds).
It was restored by Maestra Susan Tattershall, the case by Maestra Mireya Olvera.
SUMMARY OF THE DISPOSITION
|Flautados: LH- 4´, 2´, 1´, 2/3´, 1/2´-1´ |
Flutes: LH- 8´
Reeds: LH- 4´ (interior)
Accesories: Pajaritos (birds)
|RH- 4´, 4´, 2´, 2´, 1 1/3´ |
RH- 8´ (exterior)
ORGAN DESCRIPTIONType: stationery four foot organ
Location in the church: in the choir loft on the right south (Epistle) side of the main altar
Measurements of the case: 3.68 m height x 2.03 m width x 0.87 m depth
Case finish: polychromed and gilded
Pipe finish: polychromed
Distribution of the façade pipes: correspond to the LH, divided among three towers, center tower with the tallest pipe in the center, side towers with pipes arranged chromatically
Distribution of the interior pipes: chromatic
Keyboard: made of bone and Mexican white pine in the nineteenth c., restored in 1991.
Compass: 45 keys C-c’’’ with a short octave
Key action: suspended without rollerboard
Stop action: probably from 1735 when the stop action controled by lateral slider pulls was changed to stop knobs on the façade; pajaritos stop is still operated by the original slider; registers divided middle c/c#.
Labels: made in 1991
Windchest: predates the additions of 1735; pallets numbered
Measurements of the windchest: 1 m length x 0.58 m width x 0.1 m height
Vertical channelboards: two- LH of flautado mayor and clarines
Offset chests: none
Bellows: two cuneiform types, covers original, new ribs and blower added in 1991; may be hand-pumped
Location of the bellows: to the right side of the organ
Wind pressure: 84 mm, original stone weights
Pitch and temperament: a = 392 HZ, 1/4 comma meantone
State of conservation: very good